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June 04, 2008

FRBR & "Time-Based Media", Part 4: Alternate Forms & Supplementary Materials

Another post continuing my ruminations on the use of the FRBR model for Time-Based Media. Here I'll examine three different cases which I loosely group together as dealing with "alternate forms" or supplementary resources (for/to the original video).

First, suppose I create a short "summary" or "trailer" video for my full tutorial. This might be something very short which acts as a "moving image thumbnail" e.g. for display to users browsing result sets, or it might be a more extended summary/overview. In both cases, the characteristic that distinguishes this case from my "clip" in the earlier example is that it is not a simple "part" of the whole video: rather, the content may be drawn from various parts of the whole, and it may include additional content not available in the tutorial itself. To keep things simple, let's assume I make my summary video available in only a single format from a single source.

As in the case of the clip, my summary video contains significantly different content from the original video, so from the FRBR viewpoint, we are dealing with a new Work (W21), realized in a single Expression (E21), embodied in a single Manifestation (M21), exemplified in a single Item. The relationships between these entities and the corresponding FRBR Group 1 Entities for the whole video reflect those for the case of the clip/segment (see Figure 2 in the clip/segment case), with the distinction that in this case the Work-Work and Expression-Expression relationships are of type hasSummary/isSummaryOf (rather than hasPart/isPartOf). Again for simplicity, I'm omitting the Items in the diagrams here:

Figure 1

Second, consider the case of an audio only version of my tutorial. This isn't simply a copy of the video soundtrack, but rather a version created specifically for audio, so perhaps contains additional commentary not present in the video soundtrack, and omits some other content which relies heavily on the visual representation. Again, let's assume this is available in a single format from a single source, And as in the first example, we have a new Work (W22), realized in a single Expression (E22), embodies in a single Manifestation (M22), exemplified in a single Item. So the relationships with the "original" entities form a similar "pattern" to the first case, but here the Work-Work and Expression-Expresson relationships are of type hasAdaptation/isAdaptationOf:

Figure 2

Third, I may provide text transcripts, for both of these cases, i.e a transcript for each of the video and audio tutorials. For the transcript of the video, again, following FRBR and particularly Martha Yee's point that its visual nature is a key characteristic of the moving image work, the change from moving image to text represents the creation of a new Work (and Expression, Manifestation and Item):

Figure 3

For the transcript of the audio tutorial, my initial inclination was to mirror the video case and treat the transcript as a new Work:

Figure 4

But, OTOH, FRBR does provide some examples where musical scores and musical performances are treated as multiple Expressions of a single Work. Also I notice that in the Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire example analysed by William Denton and also by Ian Davis, the text editions and the audiobook editions are modelled as Expressions of a single Work. I think the different treatment comes down to the fact that in the case of the moving image, the presence of the visual aspect means that there is a significant difference in the "intellectual content" of the moving image as compared to the text transcript, and so they are considered as two distinct Works, but in the audio case, the difference in content is much less significant: the audio tutorial is simply a "reading of" the text of the transcript. I'm not sure what (if any) relationship should exist between the two Expressions (because hasAdaptation/isAdaptationOf applies to Expressions of different Works):

Figure 5

Hmmm. I think thst is consistent with the examples I see elsewhere. Even so, the lack of "symmetry" between the moving image/transcript and audio/transcript cases does leave me a little uneasy.


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I agree - the different treatment of audio vs visual doesn't sit right with me either. As you say the argument seems to be that a visual treatment involves a larger difference in 'intellectual content' - but I'd really hate to have that argument with a musician.

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